Shoulder Assessment

Yokum Test | Subacromial Shoulder Pain

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Yokum Test

Yokum Test | Subacromial Shoulder Pain

The Yocum test is an active maneuver and aims to provoke the structures within the subacromial space. Originally described by Yokum (1983), the test underwent diagnostic accuracy assessment in a 2008 study by Silva et al..They report a sensitivity of 79% percent and a specificity of 40% when compared to MRI classification of supraspinatus tendinopathy and a sensitivity of eighty percent and specificity of 36% percent when compared to MRI findings indicative of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis. 

All in all, the patient number in the study was low, and tendon degeneration is normal, and we know that the gold standard MRI, in this case, is not robust plus the reported statistics give it a rather weak clinical value. 

To conduct the test, the patient is in sitting or standing position. Ask the patient to place the hand of the affected arm on top of the contralateral shoulder. 

Then the patient is asked to raise the elbow up without moving the shoulder. 

The test is positive is the patient’s familiar pain is reproduced.

Other common tests for subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS) are:

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References

Silva, L., Andreu, J. L., Munoz, P., Pastrana, M., Millán, I., Sanz, J., … & Fernández-Castro, M. (2008). Accuracy of physical examination in subacromial impingement syndrome. Rheumatology47(5), 679-683.

Yocum, L. A. (1983). Assessing the shoulder. History, physical examination, differential diagnosis, and special tests used. Clinics in sports Medicine2(2), 281-289.

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