Physiology 1 Welcome to your Physiology 1 Quiz This quiz has 60 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. Alpha receptors are located in smooth muscle cells in the arteriolar wall. What is the consequence of stimulation of these alpha receptors and for which neurotransmitter are alpha receptors most sensitive? vasodilatation ; adrenaline vasodilatation; noradrenaline vasoconstriction ; adrenaline vasoconstriction ; noradrenaline2. What is a criterion for the usage of the CP or creatine phosphate system during exercise? exercise longer than 30 seconds steady state explosive exercise with a maximum length of 25 seconds lactic acid is produced3. A high myoglobin contents is found in: fast twitch fibers, because they function mainly anaerobic fast twitch fibers, because they function mainly aerobic slow twitch fibers, because they function mainly anaerobic slow twitch fibers, because they function mainly aerobic4. Fast glycolytic fibers (type II, white) have a fast contraction velocity (as compared to slow oxidative muscle fibers (type I, red) because fast glycolytic muscle fibers have: a high myosin ATP-ase activity a high glycolytic enzyme activity a slow rate of fatigue a slow rate of ATP production5. Which of the following is not an endocrine organ? hypothalamus pancreas liver kidneys6. Low oxidative capacity, high glycolytic capacity, fast contraction speed, and a low level of fatigue resistance are characteristics of: FTa fibers FTb fibers FTc fibers ST fibers7. How much is the effective alveolar ventilation of a person when given: The Tidal Volume is 500 ml The Breath Frequency is 20 times per minute 4 liters/min 7 liters/min 10 liters/min 13 liters/min8. The smallest functional unit of a muscle is the: myofilament sarcomere Z disc neuromuscular junction9. I. Cells that are placed in a isotonic fluid absorb H2O and swell. II. Cells that are placed in an hypotonic fluid lose H2O and shrink. only I is correct only II is correct both I and II are correct both I and II are incorrect10. Which of the following pressure differences causes a flow of air into the lungs during inspiration? Patmospheric – Palveolar Palveolar – Pintrapleural Pintrapleural –Pintrathoracal Pintrapulmonal – Patmospheric11. Which of the following is correct? Steroid hormones: are derived from proteins are produced in the adrenal cortex are produced by Sympathetic stimulation form cyclic AMP as a second messenger12. Which of the following muscles are active during quiet normal inspiration? diaphragm and Internal Intercostal muscles diaphragm and External Intercostal muscles internal Intercostal muscles and M. Sternocleidomastoideus external Intercostal muscles and M. Sternocleidomastoideus13. An eccentric muscle contraction is one in which: the muscle lengthens as contractile force is generated the muscle shortens as contractile force is generated the muscle produces contractile tension but joint angle does not change the muscle shortens but no contractile tension is generated14. In which way can the production of the hormone insuline be stimulated? a high blood sugar level sympathetic stimulation alternative a. and b. are both correct alternative a. and b. are both incorrect15. In a muscle that is contracting: Ca2+ is bound to troponin Ca2+ is bound to tropomyosin Tropomyosin covers the binding sites on actin Troponin covers the binding sites on myosin16. What is the maximum % of actin and myosin filaments that can be coupled under circumstance that a muscle has a maximal contraction? 50% 70% 100% 120%17. What is true about the autonomic nervous system? It controls the body's involuntary internal functions It controls the function of skeletal muscle It contains glands to secrete hormones None of the above18. Which of the following is an important function of ATP in skeletal muscle? It is required for the dissociation of actin from myosin It is hydrolyzed by the ATPase that pumps calcium ions into the sarcoplasmatic reticulum It is used for the phosphorylation of myosin A and B) are both correct19. Which of the following is not secreted by the adrenal cortex? insulin cortisol androgens aldosterone20. Which of the following is not true regarding steroid hormones? Steroid hormones are lipid soluble Most steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol The steroid hormones include epinephrine and norepinephrine. (adrenalin and noradrenalin) Steroid hormones include the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex21. Which of the following hormones is a potent stimulator of lipolysis (release of free fatty acids)? cortisol epinephrine and norepinephrine growth hormone all of the above22. When you look at the structure of skeletal muscles from large to small, what is the correct sequence? muscle fiber, myofilaments, myofibril myofibril, muscle fiber, myofilaments myofilaments, myofibril, muscle fiber muscle fiber, myofibril, myofilaments23. Which of the following organs is ONLY innervated by the Sympathetic Nervous System? Lacrimal gland Salivatory glands M. Dilatator pupillae M. Constrictor pupillae24. In which of the following situation will the breathing centers in the medulla oblongata stop stimulating the inspiratory muscles? a very high PCO2 in the arterial blood a very low PCO2 in the arterial blood a very high PO2 in the venous blood a very low PO2 in the venous blood25. During the depolarisation phase of the action potential: channels for Na+ open permeability to K ions becomes bigger than to Na ions Na+ channels close hyper polarization takes place26. From an isotonic twitch, the following features are known: the latent period lasts 20 msec the contraction time (crescente) lasts 10 msec the relaxation time (decrescente) lasts 10 msec What does the time between following action potentials need to be in order to change this twitch into an unfused tetanus? between 0 and 20 milliseconds between 20 and 30 milliseconds between 25 and 35 milliseconds between 30 and 40 milliseconds27. What is the main effect on the dead space in the lungs in diseases whereby alveolar tissue is replaced by connective tissue (like in cystic fibrosis)? the physiological dead space increases the physiological dead space decreases the anatomical dead space increases the anatomical dead space decreases28. It is a given fact that the consequence of a spinal lesion is a fallout of the functions below the lesion. Which of the following functions falls out as a consequence of a lesion at the level of L3 of the spinal cord? the Sympathetic function to the bladder the Parasympathetic function to the bladder alternative a. and b. are both correct alternative a. and b. are both incorrect29. Which of the following factors increases the total force in a muscle? a decrease in the recruitment of motor units an increase in the speed of contraction a decrease in the number of fast glycolytic fibers that are used an increase in the action potential frequency30. The thick filaments of a myofibril are composed mainly of: sarcoplasm tropomyosin actin myosin31. Production of cortisol from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by: androgens adrenaline ACTH ACTHRH32. The connective tissue sheath that surrounds an individual skeletal muscle fiber is called the: perimysium sarcolemma epimysium endomysium33. Considering diffusion of water soluble substances, which statement is true? the permeability depends on the number of pores in the plasma membrane the substance dissolves into the plasmamembrane on both sides an electrical gradient can never be the cause of the diffusion the diffusion takes place against the concentration gradient34. Which of the following is the result of a low PCO2 and a high PO2 in the alveolar air within the lungs? a bronchodilatation and a vasodilatation a bronchodilatation and a vasoconstriction a bronchoconstriction and a vasodilatation a bronchoconstriction and a vasoconstriction35. The secondary centers of the Parasympathetic Nervous system are found in: (1)_________and contain (2)___________ as a transmitter substance: A B C D36. Which of the following features is a difference between smooth muscle and skeletal muscle? A B C D37. Increasing the magnitude of the membrane potential from its resting level to a more negative value. This is the correct description of: depolarizing hyperpolarizing repolarizing propagation38. When a muscle fiber is stimulated by a motor nerve, the muscle fiber will either contract maximally or it will not contract at all. This is referred to as: the sliding filament theory of contraction the all-or-none response of muscle muscle fiber recruitment muscle fatigue39. Amine hormones are: derived from tyrosin amino acid derived from cholesterol only produced in the adrenal cortex and nowhere else for example testosterone and cortisol40. Filtration: needs a concentration gradient is caused by fluid or hydrostatic pressure goes sometimes from a gas to a fluid always goes against the direction of the highest osmotic pressure41. What is true about muscle properties? The length-tension relationship is exactly the same as that of a sarcomere The faster a muscle contract eccentrically, the more force can be generated A very short muscle can probably generate less force than at a “medium” length. A single twitch can generate the lead to the same force as a tetanus42. Iodine shortage leads to the formation of goiter. The reason for the enlarged thyroid gland in this situation is: an overproduction of TSHRH an overproduction of TSH an overproduction of T3 an overproduction of T443. Suppose a person bikes 750m within 120 seconds. What is the main source of energy? creatine phosphate glucose fatty acids depends on their diet44. Growth hormone: promotes postnatal growth of the body especially of bones is released from anterior pituitary gland is not released in short people both A & B45. Which of the following is a feature of a small motor unit (as compared to a large motor unit)? Small motor units: have very few motor neurons that innervate them have very few muscle fibers in their motor unit are found in muscles with coarse movements secrete a few packets of acetylcholine in their neuromuscular synapses46. In the case a person has a pneumothorax: the lungs expand and the thoracic wall moves inward the lungs expand and the thoracic wall moves outward the lungs recoil and the thoracic wall moves inward the lungs recoil and the thoracic wall moves outward47. The specialized network of membranous tubules that stores calcium ions in a muscle fiber is the: sarcolemma mitochondria sarcoplasmic reticulum motor unit48. Which of the following hormones is produced in the posterior pituitary and how is its production stimulated? oxytocin, through inactive hormone transported through nerve fibers oxytocin, through releasing hormone transported in the blood prolactine through inactive hormone transported through nerve fibers prolactine through releasing hormone transported in the blood49. How many liters of extracellular fluid does a man who weighs 100 kilograms have? 22 liter 30 liter 66 liter 44 liter50. During a contraction of a sarcomere: The Z-line will vanish The A-band stays the same length The I-band becomes smaller b. and c. are both correct51. Which of the following events that take place during a muscle contraction, need ATP? coupling of actin and myosin filaments uncoupling of actin and myosin filament alternative a. and b. are both correct alternative a) and b) are both incorrect52. Slow-twitch (ST) muscle fibers are also sometimes referred to as: type I fibers type IIa fibers type IIb fibers type III fibers53. The similarity between primary active transport and passive transport is that in both cases: the transport goes against the concentration gradient at equilibrium the intracellular and extracellular concentrations are equal a carrier protein can be used ATP is used as energy source54. What is NOT true about the autonomic nervous system? The parasympathetic division contains muscarinic and nicotinic receptors The sympathetic division contains mostly adrenergic receptors The parasympathetic division will increase blood flow through active muscles The sympathetic division will react on (nor)epinephrine55. Which of the following physiological changes is elicited by parasympathetic stimulation? increased heart rate increased sweating dilation of coronary blood vessels constriction of bronchial airways56. In a resting person who is sitting upright, the Ventilation Perfusion ratio is normally: higher in the top of the lungs than in the base higher in the base of the lungs than in the top exactly 2.00 none of the above are correct57. According to the sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction, during concentric contraction: The thick filaments stay the same size but the thin filaments shorten The sarcomeres shorten The thin filaments stay the same size but the thick filaments shorten None of the above occurs58. The resting membrane potential: occurs only in nerve and skeletal muscle cells is the same in all cells is orientated so that the cell exterior is positive with respect to the intracellular fluid requires complete separation of all ions59. What is the reason that actin myosin filaments are pulled apart right after a contraction (start of relaxation of the muscle)? The filaments are pulled apart by: pumping back Ca2+ into the sarcoplasmatic reticulum stopping the production of action potentials in the muscle endplate using external forces like gravity returning the tropomyosin ribbon to cover the actin binding sites60. Which of the following cell functions is anabolic? protein synthesis break down of ATP oxydative phosphorylation glycolysisTime is Up!