Pathology 2 Welcome to your Pathology 2: Cardiac, Pulmonary, Orthopedic Pathology Quiz This quiz has 60 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. When stroke volume decreases, which of the following could maintain cardiac output? decreased peripheral resistance increased heart rate decreased venous return general vasodilation2. Which of the following factors greatly improves venous return to the heart during strenuous exercise? rapid emptying of the right side of the heart forceful action of the valves in the veins contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle peristalsis in the large veins3. Which of the following results from increased secretion of epinephrine? increased heart rate and force of contraction decreased stimulation of the SA node and ventricles vasoconstriction in skeletal muscles and kidneys vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels4. Which of the following causes increased heart rate? stimulation of the vagus nerve increased renin secretion administration of beta-blocking drugs stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system5. What does the term preload refer to? volume of venous return peripheral resistance stroke volume cardiac output6. Vasodilation in the skin and viscera results directly from: decreased blood pressure increased parasympathetic stimulation relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterioles increased stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors7. What will a partial obstruction in a coronary artery likely cause? pulmonary embolus hypertension angina attacks myocardial infarction8. Factors that may precipitate an angina attack include all of the following EXCEPT: eating a large meal an angry argument walking down stairs shovelling snow on a cold, windy day9. When comparing angina with myocardial infarction (MI), which statement is true? Both angina and MI cause tissue necrosis. Angina often occurs at rest; MI occurs during a stressful time. Pain is more severe and lasts longer with angina than with MI. Angina pain is relieved by rest and intake of nitroglycerin; the pain of MI is not.10. Which statement describes a coronary artery bypass procedure? removing the section of an artery containing plaque and thrombus compressing the thrombus with an inflated balloon to provide a larger lumen attaching a section of vein to the coronary artery proximal and distal to the obstruction adding a piece of vein to the end of each coronary artery11. What is the most common cause of death immediately following a myocardial infarction? cardiac arrhythmias ruptured ventricle congestive heart failure cerebrovascular accident12. Which of the following are significant signs of right-sided congestive heart failure? severe chest pain and tachycardia edematous feet and legs with hepatomegaly frequent cough with blood-streaked frothy sputum orthopnea, fatigue, increased blood pressure13. In which blood vessels will failure of the left ventricle cause increased hydrostatic pressure? veins of the legs and feet jugular veins pulmonary capillaries blood vessels of the liver and spleen14. Which of the following effects may be expected from a beta-adrenergic blocking drug? increasing systemic vasoconstriction decreased sympathetic stimulation of the heart blockage of an angiotensin receptor site increased release of renin15. Which of the following could be the source of an embolus causing an obstruction in the brain? femoral vein pulmonary vein carotid artery coronary artery16. When is a diagnosis of essential hypertension likely to be considered in young or middle-aged individuals? blood pressure remains consistently above 140/90 blood pressure fluctuates between 130/ 85 and 180/105 blood pressure increases rapidly and is unresponsive to medication chronic kidney disease leads to consistently elevated blood pressure17. What does the term intermittent claudication refer to? sensory deficit in the legs due to damage to nerves chest pain related to ischemia ischemic muscle pain in the legs, particularly with exercise dry, cyanotic skin with superficial ulcers18. What happens in the lungs when the diaphragm relaxes? Air is moved out of the lungs. Lung volume increases. Intrapulmonic pressure decreases. Intrapleural pressure decreases.19. Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery? PCO2 is low. PO2 is low. Hydrostatic pressure is very high. It is flowing into the left atrium.20. Which of the following causes bronchodilation? epinephrine histamine parasympathetic nervous system drugs that block beta-2 adrenergic receptors21. What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia? Rhinovirus Influenza virus Haemophilus influenza Pneumococcus22. Which of the following statements does NOT apply to M. tuberculosis? Microbes can survive for a long time inside tubercles. The bacilli can survive some adverse conditions such as drying and heat. Infection is limited to the lungs. The bacilli are destroyed by most antibacterial drugs.23. What cause the expanded A-P thoracic diameter (barrel chest) in patients with emphysema? air trapping and hyperinflation persistent coughing to remove mucus recurrent damage to lung tissues dilated bronchi and increased mucous secretions24. Destruction of alveolar walls and septae is a typical change in: chronic bronchitis acute asthma emphysema asbestosis25. Pulmonary edema causes severe hypoxia because of: decreased diffusion of carbon dioxide from the alveoli increasing difficulty expanding the lungs constant cough and hemoptysis decreased recoil of lungs and ineffective expiration26. Which of the following is a common source of a pulmonary embolus? mural thrombus from the left ventricle thrombus attached to atheromas in the aorta or iliac arteries thrombus forming in the femoral veins a blood clot in the pulmonary vein27. Rheumatoid arthritis is a form of: Auto-immune arthritis Pyogenic arthritis Osteo-arthritis Septic arthritis28. Osteomyelitis in a long bone cannot reach the adjacent joint except in: Tibia to ankle joint Tibia to knee joint Radius to wrist joint Humerus to elbow joint29. A meniscus lesion can be shown by: X-ray CT scan Angiography Arthrography30. Acquired bony deformity may not derive from: Muscle imbalance Arthritis Congenital malformation Prolonged abnormal pressure31. On suspicion of a soft tissue tumor the diagnostic method of choice is: X-ray CT scan MRI T otal body scan32. One out of the next 4 notations 1 is not correct (according the AAOS standards): Rigid ankle in 20° equinus: dorso-/plantar flexion 0/20/20° Normal dorso-/plantar flexion ankle: 20/0/50° Full pro-/supination of the hand: 30/0/90° Full flexion/extension PIP joint index: 100/0/033. Non-complicated full fracture healing takes: 6 weeks 12 weeks 6 months 12 months34. What makes an compound fracture more risky then a closed fracture cannot be operated fracture hematoma is lost possible pin tract infection external fixation not so rigid35. Ewing’s sarcoma metastasizes at an early stage to the: brain liver lungs other bones36. Immovable joints are called: amphiarthroses synarthroses diarthroses synovial joints37. Rickets results from: excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts a deficit of Vitamin D and phosphates replacement of bone by fibrous tissue hyperparathyroidism38. Paget’s disease often leads to: multiple pathologic fractures increased intracranial pressure both a and b neither a nor b39. Therapeutic measures for osteoporosis include: non–weight-bearing exercises dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D transplants of osteoblasts avoidance of all hormones40. Where does inflammation usually begin in an individual with ankylosing spondylitis? costovertebral joints and progression down the spine cervical and thoracic vertebrae, causing kyphosis sacroiliac joints and progression up the spine peripheral joints and then proceeds to the vertebrae41. What limits joint movement in osteoarthritis most? the osteophytes and irregular cartilage surface the wider joint space decreased amount of synovial fluid in the cavity fibrosis involving the joint capsule and ligaments42. The inflammation surrounding a fracture site during the first few days may complicate healing by causing: excessive bone movement severe ischemia and tissue necrosis malunion or nonunion fat emboli to form43. In case of a ‘ frozen shoulder’ The shoulder is not moving at all The shoulder is never painful The shoulder can still move in almost all directions The shoulder anatomy has changed44. Stability of the real shoulder joint is caused by Glenoid ligament (labrum) Joint capsule Muscles around the shoulder a,b, and c45. Frozen Shoulder is a pathological condition of the: Gleno-humeral joint Sterno-clavicular joint Acromio-clavicular joint All of the above46. A frozen shoulder Will never change any more Can be prevented by (often painful) exercises Makes a patient fully helpless and dependant Can likely occur on the opposite site as well47. A patient complains of pain over the shoulder without having had a trauma; what could NOT be the cause? Arthritis of the shoulder joint Musculus supraspinatus tendinosis Cervical disc prolapse Tear of the musculus sterno-cleido-mastoideus48. In case of a serious osteo-arthritis of the shoulder one option is unlikely The shoulder ROM is limited The shoulder is often painful at exercises An artificial shoulder joint will restore good function Acceptance is a good option49. In case of a first traumatic shoulder dislocation An anterior dislocation is less likely than a posterior dislocation The shoulder capsule is not ruptured Acute reposition is rather easy X-Ray is advisable before reposition is tried50. Thoracic outlet syndrome is NOT caused by Cervical disc prolaps Cervical 1st rib Scalenus syndrome Thoraco-clavicular compression syndrome51. One of the statements below is NOT correct A fibroma is an inflammation of connective tissue A myosarcoma is a malignant tumor of a muscle Myositis is an inflammation of the muscle Fibro-myalgia are pains of unknown origin52. Swelling of a muscle after trauma is most likely A benign tumor A malignant tumor A hematoma An inflammation53. Swelling, redness, pain and impaired function are signs and symptoms (S+S) of: An infection Septic inflammation Non-septic inflammation a,b, and c54. A knee joint can be painfully locked by (mark the option that is NOT correct) A torn meniscus Osteo-chondritis dissecans Anterior cruciate tear Loose body55. Signs and symptoms (S+S) of an arthritic knee are (mark the option that is NOT correct) Limited painful ROM Crepitations Lipping at the joint space Gross instability56. A Trendelenburg Sign can indicate A weak iliopsoas Weak hip abductors MCL tear Low back pain57. Patients with lateral elbow epicondalgia have trouble gripping objects describe a painful spot at the lateral humeral epicondyle have high pain scores all of the above58. The unhappy triad refers to injury of the Talofibular ligament, talocalcaneal ligament, and syndesmosis ACL, MCL and meniscus Labrum, femoral shaft, and piriformis it doesn't exist59. The most common cause for cervical radiculopathy are Herniated discs & degenerative disc disease Fractures and ligament hypertrophy Tumors & infections A & B60. Fractures after ankle inversion trauma occur in 5% of cases 10% of cases 15% of cases 20% of casesTime is Up!