Pathology 1 Welcome to your Pathology 1: Terminology, immune system, pathological processes Quiz This quiz has 50 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. The number of new cases of a particular disease in a given population within a given time period is called: mortality morbidity incidence prevalence2. Which medical condition is an example of an autoimmune disorder? serum sickness Kaposi’s sarcoma systemic lupus erythematosus antagonism against the Rhesus antigen on the surface of red blood cells3. The risk of osteoporosis developing in older women can be reduced by: taking glucocorticoids taking estrogens or estrogen-like drugs avoiding mechanical strain to the bones stimulating osteoclast activity in the bones4. Which type of immunoglobulin is responsible for the passive immunity of a newborn baby? IgA IgE IgG IgM5. In chronic inflammations, several cell types are invloved, EXCEPT: fibroblasts lymphocytes macrophages neutrophilic granulocytes6. Which condition is BOTH congenital AND genetic? cleft palate spina bifida phenylketonuria Huntington's chorea7. Which statement regarding anaphylaxis is correct? the immunoglobulin involved is IgA it is commonly caused by contact with metals, dyes or rubber it immediately leads to severe hypertension and hyperventilation it implies a sudden massive release of histamine in the general circulation8. An infection by resident flora is most appropriately called: chronic infection sporadic infection nosocomial infection opportunistic infection9. Rubor (redness), one of the classical local signs of inflammation, is caused by: closing of precapillary sphincters increased permeability of capillary walls vasodilation of arterioles, capillaries and venules all of the above10. Consider the inheritance of an X-linked recessive disorder. If an affected father and a mother who is a carrier of the abnormal gene were to have children, how would you predict the risk of the sons to have the same disease as their father? 100% 75% 50% 25%11. What is usually the first sign of a decubitus ulcer developing in an area? pallor redness loss of sensation low skin temperature12. Which of the following factors predispose to the development of pneumonia in elderly bed-ridden patients? retention of carbon dioxide deep and frequent breathing pooled secretions in the lungs frequent contact with family members, friends and neighbours13. How do non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) achieve their anti-inflammatory effect? by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis by counteracting the effects of histamine by slowing down the actions of leukocytes by decreasing the permeability of capillary walls14. Which statement regarding viruses is correct? they don’t contain DNA or RNA they are capable of producing spores they are generally larger than protozoa they are are dependent on other living cells for their reproduction15. Which type of cells have rapid rates of mitosis? osteoblasts erytrocytes in the blood stream endothelial cells lining blood vessels mucosal cells lining the digestive tract16. The following white blood cells are capable of phagocytosis, EXCEPT: monocytes lymphocytes macrophages neutrophilic granulocytes17. Which statement regarding cancer pain is correct? pain is one of the early warning signs of cancer pain is often caused by malignant infiltration of joint cartilage pain may be caused by stretch of capsules like those of liver or kidneys pain is always caused by secondary effects of tumors, like infection, ischemia or bleeding18. Adjuvant cancer therapy is a type of: placebo treatment curative treatment palliative treatment prophylactic treatment19. Which of the following disorders is multifactorial? hemophilia schizophrenia Turner's syndrome Duchenne's muscular dystrophy20. Which type of burn involves destruction of the complete epidermis? a deep full-thickness burn a deep partial-thickness burn a superficial full-thickness burn a superficial partial-thickness burn21. In the diagnostic phase of cancer treatment, the tumor is graded. What does the expression "tumor grade IV" mean? the tumor is very large the disease is incurable the cancer cells are undifferentiated there are metastases in many other organs22. The composition of the influenza vaccine has to be changed every year. Why? because of the limited supply of vaccine because of the antigenic shift in virus strains because of the fast development of resistance to antibiotics because of the ever-changing "repertoire" of antibodies in the average individual23. Consider the inheritance of an autosomal dominant disorder. If an affected father and a completely unaffected mother were to have children, what would you expect of their offspring? 50% of the boys are affected 50% of the boys are carriers 25% of the girls are carriers 25% of the girls are completely unaffected24. During an inflammatory response, histamine is secreted by: bacteria mast cells B lymphocytes neutrophilic granulocytes25. The first step in carcinogenesis is a change in the DNA code of one cell. This change is called: mutation proliferation degeneration differentiation26. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus may lead to a combination of: edema and acidosis edema and alkalosis dehydration and acidosis dehydration and alkalosis27. Which statement regarding helper T lymphocytes is NOT correct? they are necessary for antigen presentation the have differentiated and developed in the thymus they regulate the activity of all theother immune cells they are favorite targets of the human immunodeficiency virus28. Mast cells in the tissue are comparable to which type of blood cells? platelets monocytes B lymphocytes basophilic granulocytes29. What is often a dose-limiting factor in chemotherapy? diarrhea nausea and vomiting bone marrow suppression the development of depression and/or psychosis30. Which of the following tumors is malignant? sarcoma osteoma hematoma all of the above31. We may call a tumor certainly "malignant" if it shows this feature: autonomous growth evidence of dissemination surrounded by a thin capsule compression of surrounding tissue32. What is meant by the term "biopsy"? analysis of body fluids examination of the body after death excision of a small amount of living tissue a surgical procedure to remove a diseased organ33. Which statement regarding granulation tissue is true? it is formed out of a blood clot it contains a lot of capillary buds it is yellowish or brownish in color it is especially abundant in wounds who are healing by first intention34. Alcohol or iodine solutions, used to clear the skin of as many germs a possible would be called: autoclaves antiseptics bacteriostatics sterilizing agents35. A period of increased symptoms and sign in the course of a chronic disease is called: a sequela a complication an exacerbation a precipitating factor36. What is meant by the term "etiology"? the symptoms and signs of a disease the identification of a specific disease the causative factors of a particular disease the chain of events leading to manifest disease37. The athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is caused by which type of microorganism? fungi viruses protozoa bacterium38. Several medical conditions may occur as a complication of burn injuries. Which one is the LEAST likely? pneumonia overhydration circulatory shock hypermetabolism39. Dehydration may lead to the following signs, EXCEPT: bradycardia hypotension lowered skin turgor increase of hematocrit40. Following a breast amputation, women may complain of a swollen arm at the operated side. What could be the cause of this edema? increased capillary permeability obstruction of lymphatic drainage decreased plasma osmotic pressure impeded venous return from the arm41. Which cells are unable to reproduce? osteoblasts epithelial cells T lymphocytes mature neurons42. Severe pneumonia could lead to: metabolic acidosis metabolic alkalosis respiratory acidosis respiratory alkalosis43. Nutruphilic (or polymorphonuclear) granulocytes are to be found in exudates, especially: serous exudates purulent exudates fibrinous exudates hemorrhagic exudates44. Consider the inheritance of an autsomal recessive disorder. If both parents were carriers of an abnormal gene, would would you expect of their offspring? 75% of the boys are affected 50% of the boys are carriers 25% of the girls are carriers 0% of the girls are completely un affected45. Which cell is capable of producing antibodies? lymphoblast B lymphocyte helper T lymphocyte cytotoxic T lymphocyte46. What is the meaning of the term "chemotaxis"? increased permeability of vessel walls attraction of defensive cells to the area of an inflammation movement of plasma proteins through the interstitial spaces movement of leukocytes through vessel walls into the interstitial space47. What does "seroconversion" mean in relation to HIV and AIDS? surface antigen of HIV has been found in the blood the incubation period of the disease has come to an end the virus has been isolated in the blood or other body fluids antibodies against HIV have been identified in the patient’s blood48. How would you call a benign tumor of milk-producing cells in the breast? adenoma prolactinoma mastocytoma mmacarcinoma49. What is the karyotype of a boy with Down's syndrome 44 autosomes + XXY 44 autosomes + XYY 45 autosomes + X0 45 autosomes + XY50. Which of the following statements about normal age-related changes is true? the level of all hormones decrease strength of skeletal muscles declines inspiration is limited but expiration is not affected production of saliva increases, eventually often leading to droolingTime is Up!