Welcome to your Evidence Based Practice: Statistics, Accuracy, Reliability Quiz This quiz has 35 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. The degree to which a test measures what it aims to measure is referred to as reliability True False2. Which term best describes a test's ability to detect subtle differences? Minimal clinical important difference Internal validity Responsiveness Accuracy3. Nearly any question you ask during patient history taking can be considered a diagnostic test. True False4. (a+c) / (a+b+c+d) will refer to Incidence Prevalence Mortality Morbidity5. If a publication states that "the result is significant" this means that The result is clinically relevant The result is unlikely to be caused by chance 1 is true Both 1 & 2 are true 2 is true None are true6. When the prevalence decreases within a study population, a test's sensitivity and specificity shall decrease as well. True False7. Internal validity of a study is related to: Quality of the methods used Possibility to generalize conclusions The choice of statistical tests only The effect of the studied intervention8. A highly sensitive test yields a high number of true positive (TP) results. True False9. Construct validity describes: How well the individual items in a tool are related to the outcome How well the individual items in a tool appear to test the outcome How well the individual items in a tool test a theory related to the outcome How a tool performs in relation to other tools testing for the same outcome10. In a systematic review, the data extraction and analysis for risk of bias has to be done by two independent raters. True False11. "Clinical homogeneity and statistical heterogeneity of different studies in a systematic review." Statement: Pooling of results is not allowed. True False12. If the severity of illness increases within a study population, sensitivity and specificity will decrease. True False13. A positive outcome in a 100% specific test can rule out the disease True False14. 'Prevalence' is equal to the post-test probability of someone developing a condition. True False15. If a test is highly sensitive, one may exclude a condition based on a small portion of false-positive (FP) results. True False16. Reproducibility is the degree of difference between scores measured by 1, 2, or more raters in patients whose characteristics have not changed between measurements. True False17. Positive and negative predictive values are independent from the prevalence of a certain condition. True False18. 'Reproducibility' of a diagnostic test can be expressed in 'sensitivity' and 'specificity'. True False19. A Kappa value of K 0.61 - 0.80 is considered "moderate". True False20. A weighted Kappa is used to express the degree of agreement between ordinal variables. True False21. A negative outcome in a 100% sensitive test can rule out the disease True False22. If a test has interval results, its reliability is expressed with a Kappa value. True False23. An instrument's degree of inter-rater-reliability is important for the diagnostic classification of patients. True False24. The negative Likelihood Ratio (LR-) tells us how likely it is to see a negative test result in patients who have the disease vs. how likely it is to see a negative test result in patients who do not have the disease. True False25. Which formula is used to calculate specificity? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + d26. Among others, ICC and Kappa are measures of reliability for a diagnostic test. True False27. Which formula is used to calculate positive predictive value? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + d28. "The prevalence of patients with an ACL tear in a general practice will be__________than in a sports clinic that is specialized in knee injuries." Lower Higher29. Which formula is used to calculate negative predictive value? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + d30. On the evidence pyramid you will find case studies below expert opinion. True False31. If you want to use a test as a screening test its essential that the test has a high specificity. True False32. Combining studies in a systematic review results in a larger study population and thus increases the power of the research. True False33. Which formula is used to calculate sensitivity? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + d34. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) are independent from the prevalence within the study population. True False35. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) vor numerical variables adjusts for systematic measurement errors. True FalseTime is Up!