Welcome to your Evidence Based Practice: Statistics, Accuracy, Reliability Quiz This quiz has 35 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. If a test is highly sensitive, one may exclude a condition based on a small portion of false-positive (FP) results. True False2. The degree to which a test measures what it aims to measure is referred to as reliability True False3. A weighted Kappa is used to express the degree of agreement between ordinal variables. True False4. Which term best describes a test's ability to detect subtle differences? Minimal clinical important difference Internal validity Responsiveness Accuracy5. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) vor numerical variables adjusts for systematic measurement errors. True False6. If a test has interval results, its reliability is expressed with a Kappa value. True False7. An instrument's degree of inter-rater-reliability is important for the diagnostic classification of patients. True False8. Among others, ICC and Kappa are measures of reliability for a diagnostic test. True False9. A Kappa value of K 0.61 - 0.80 is considered "moderate". True False10. 'Prevalence' is equal to the post-test probability of someone developing a condition. True False11. A negative outcome in a 100% sensitive test can rule out the disease True False12. Which formula is used to calculate specificity? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + d13. If the severity of illness increases within a study population, sensitivity and specificity will decrease. True False14. A positive outcome in a 100% specific test can rule out the disease True False15. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) are independent from the prevalence within the study population. True False16. Which formula is used to calculate sensitivity? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + d17. When the prevalence decreases within a study population, a test's sensitivity and specificity shall decrease as well. True False18. "The prevalence of patients with an ACL tear in a general practice will be__________than in a sports clinic that is specialized in knee injuries." Lower Higher19. A highly sensitive test yields a high number of true positive (TP) results. True False20. Nearly any question you ask during patient history taking can be considered a diagnostic test. True False21. Combining studies in a systematic review results in a larger study population and thus increases the power of the research. True False22. Which formula is used to calculate negative predictive value? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + d23. Internal validity of a study is related to: Quality of the methods used Possibility to generalize conclusions The choice of statistical tests only The effect of the studied intervention24. (a+c) / (a+b+c+d) will refer to Incidence Prevalence Mortality Morbidity25. In a systematic review, the data extraction and analysis for risk of bias has to be done by two independent raters. True False26. If a publication states that "the result is significant" this means that The result is clinically relevant The result is unlikely to be caused by chance 1 is true Both 1 & 2 are true 2 is true None are true27. If you want to use a test as a screening test its essential that the test has a high specificity. True False28. Construct validity describes: How well the individual items in a tool are related to the outcome How well the individual items in a tool appear to test the outcome How well the individual items in a tool test a theory related to the outcome How a tool performs in relation to other tools testing for the same outcome29. "Clinical homogeneity and statistical heterogeneity of different studies in a systematic review." Statement: Pooling of results is not allowed. True False30. Reproducibility is the degree of difference between scores measured by 1, 2, or more raters in patients whose characteristics have not changed between measurements. True False31. The negative Likelihood Ratio (LR-) tells us how likely it is to see a negative test result in patients who have the disease vs. how likely it is to see a negative test result in patients who do not have the disease. True False32. Positive and negative predictive values are independent from the prevalence of a certain condition. True False33. On the evidence pyramid you will find case studies below expert opinion. True False34. 'Reproducibility' of a diagnostic test can be expressed in 'sensitivity' and 'specificity'. True False35. Which formula is used to calculate positive predictive value? a / a + c d / b + d a / a + b d / c + dTime is Up!