Biomechanics 2 Welcome to your Biomechanics 2: Gait Quiz This quiz has 40 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. In the frontal plane, what is the position of the right hip during the bipedal phases? Maximally adducted Maximally abducted Approximately neutral2. Patients with an ankylosis of the hip joint in a flexed position show the tendency to bend the trunk forwards in beginning of stance phase to bend the trunk forwards at the end of stance phase to bend the trunk forwards at the end of swing phase3. Patients with a weak (or paralyzed) m. gluteus maximus show an excessive backward bending of the trunk Because of positioning the PCM of the head, arms and trunk in front of the hip joint Because of using the extension limitation of the ligaments of the hip joint None of the above is correct4. What is the correct order of phases in the swing phase? Pre swing – Initial swing – Mid swing – Terminal swing Initial swing – Mid swing – Terminal swing Toe off – Feet adjacent – Next initial contact5. When is the subtalar joint everting? During Loading response During Terminal stance None of the above6. At what percentage of the gait cycle can you expect opposite mid swing? 30% 45% 15%7. At what percentage of the gait cycle is the potential energy at its maximum? 30% 55% 100%8. What could initial contact with the forefoot (instead of heel) indicate? Contracture of plantar flexors Severe weakness of dorsiflexors Both a) and b) are correct9. What is the total duration of the stance phase? 40% of the gait cycle 50% of the gait cycle 60% of the gait cycle10. At heel strike the ground reaction force has A flexion moment at the hip joint An extension moment at the hip joint No moment at the hip joint11. Which pathological condition could arise from paralysis of the hamstrings? Genu recurvatum Trendelenburg Hemiplegic gait12. Which strategy reduces the downward displacement of the GCM? Transversal plane pelvic rotation Frontal plane pelvic rotation None of the above13. What is a step of the right leg? heel strike of the right foot until heel strike of the left foot heel strike of the left foot until heel strike of the right foot heel strike of the right foot until heel strike of the right foot14. Which of the following is an ‘event’ in the gait cycle? Loading response Mid stance Tibia vertical15. What percentage of the gait cycle is spent in double-limb support? 24% 12% 6%16. Which strategy reduces the upward displacement of the GCM? Transversal plane pelvic rotation Frontal plane pelvic rotation None of the above17. What is the moment of the ground reaction force at hip during loading response? flexion extension zero18. If the dorsiflexors are contracting in the beginning of initial swing they mainly do so Concentrically Eccentrically Isometrically19. What is the peak ground reaction force in the anterior-posterior direction? 120% of body weight 20% of body weight 5% of body weight20. Terminal stance... begins when the heel rises and ends when the contralateral lower extremity touches the ground is the phase from opposite toe-off to heel rise takes place from foot contact of the contralateral limb to toe off of the ipsilateral foot21. At what percentage of the gait cycle is the kinetic energy at its maximum? 30% 80% None of the above22. Activity of the m. gluteus maximus in loading response has mainly as function Propulsing the body forward Slowing down of excessive knee flexion None of the answers are correct23. At what point in the gait cycle is the gastrocnemius most likely at its greatest length? Between 40 and 50% Between 90 and 95% Between 10 and 15%24. What is a normal foot angle (angle between line of progression and longitudinal axis of the foot)? 0° 6° 12°25. What is a normal step frequency, walking at normal (1.4 m/s) speed? 0.5 steps/second 1 step/second 2 steps/second26. What could a “drop foot” during swing indicate? Very mild weakness of tibialis anterior Paralysis of tibialis anterior Contracture of tibialis anterior27. When is the hip joint internally rotating? During Loading response During Pre-swing During Initial swing28. What can patients with weakened quadriceps do to compensate? Holding the knee in extension with their hand/arm during stance Have their lower extremity externally rotated (at the hip joint) during stance Both a) and b) are correct29. The muscle activity of the m. iliopsoas is not always clear from literature, but if it’s active, where is the gait cycle would it be most relevant? Terminal swing to slow down the flexion movement in the hip Mid swing to oppose the extension moment of gravity Beginning of swing to initiate the leg swing30. Mid swing is the phase between 60% and 73% of the gait cycle 73% and 87% of the gait cycle 87% and 100% of the gait cycle31. What do patients with a leg length difference usually show to compensate? Circumduction the short leg during swing Shorten the longer leg during stance Both a) and b) are correct32. What could be the cause of premature elevation of the heel in mid stance? Spasticity of m. tibialis anterior Limitation of ankle to dorsiflex Mild weakness of m. Gastrocnemius33. Which event indicates the start of the stride of the right leg? Loading response Heel rise Initial contact34. When is the magnitude of the GRF the greatest? At the end of loading response In the middle of stance At the end of pre-swing35. What is the moment gravity at hip during terminal swing? flexion extension zero36. What does the event “Opposite toe off” indicate? Transition from stance to swing Transition from pre swing to initial swing Transition from loading response to mid stance37. Which of the following is a ‘phase’ in the gait cycle? Heel rise Mid stance Tibia vertical38. When is the hip joint maximally internally rotated? At 0% of the gait cycle At 100% of the gait cycle At 50% of the gait cycle39. Which event marks the transition from initial swing to mid swing? Toe off Feet adjacent Tibia vertical40. Activity of the m. triceps surae in mid stance phase has mainly as function Propulsing the body forward Slowing down the tibia Both answers are correctTime is Up!