Anatomy 1 Welcome to your Anatomy 1: Fundamentals, Myology & Osteology Lower Extremity Quiz. This quiz has 90 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. Frontal planes nearer to the front of th ebody are posterior or dorsal, while those nearer to the back are anterior or ventral. True False2. Transversal planes nearer to the head are cranial, while those nearer to the sacrum are caudal. True False3. Movements of the trunk in the transverse plane are known as lateral flexion (to the left or right) and in the frontal plane as rotation (to the left and right) True False4. When rotation of a limb brings the lateral side anteriorly, it is termed lateral rotation (or external rotation) True False5. Plantar Flexion is a movement of the foot at the ankle joint towards the sole. True False6. An aponeurosis is a membrane of fibrous tissue which sheathes orther tissues. True False7. A ligament is mostly a fibrous band joining two bones. True False8. Foramen means "hole", condyle means "knuckle", crus means "arm" and brachium means "leg". True False9. Except for the articular part, a bone is enclosed in a dense layer of fibrous connective tissue: perichondrium True False10. Among others the femur consists of compact bone, cancellous (spongy) bone and a marrow cavity. True False11. The periosteum consists of a superficial layer containing osteoblasts and a second deeper layer of fibrous tissue, containing connective tissue cells. True False12. The medullary cavity is filled with yellow marrow and the spaces in the cancellous bone with red marrow. True False13. Cartilage consists of osteocytes, contained in lacunae and surrounded by intercellular substance containing collagen. True False14. Cartilage is relatively non-vascular and is commonly nourished by tissue fluids. True False15. The following anatomical structures consist of hyaline cartilage: Articular cartilage of synovial joints The labrum enlarging the sockets of the shoulder and hip joint Intervertebral discs joining the vertebral bodies True False16. Among others white fibrocartilage is found at the xiphoid process of the sternum and in the costal cartilage. True False17. The Haversian system (=osteone) has a central canal which is surrounded by up to ten, or more, concentric lamellae of bone tissue. True False18. Bone has two principal components: an organic matrix (water, mucopolysacharides and collagen) and a mineral matrix (calcium, phosphate, etc.) True False19. The hip bone consists of the os ilii, os pubis, and os femoris. True False20. The three distinct classes of joints are: Fibrous joints Cartilaginous joints Syndesmosis True False21. Fibrous joints exist in three types: Sutures Gomphoses Synchondroses True False22. Sutures are only found in the skull; at sutures, no movement occurs. True False23. Synostosis means "obliteration" of a joint. True False24. A syndesmosis is a fibrous joint in which the uniting fibrous tissue forms an interosseus membrane or ligament. True False25. One of the two synchondroses that persists throughout life is the first sternocostal joint. True False26. The symphysis (secondary cartilaginous) is a more specialized joint than the synchondrosis; the symphysis occurs only in the median plane and persists throughout life. True False27. Typical examples of a symphysis are the joints between the bodies of the vertebrae. True False28. The inner layer of the articular capsule is formed by the fibrous membrane, the outter layer by the synovial membrane. True False29. Articular cartilage is very well innervated and therefore is very sensitive. True False30. At each end, the synovial membrane is firmly attached to the periosteum of the articulating bones, at a variable distance from the edge of the articular cartilage. True False31. The synovial membrane may be strengthened by adjacent muscle tendons of by ligaments. True False32. When the amount of fibres in the fibrous capsule is increased, and when these fibres are arranged in parallel bundles, this part of the capsule is often called a ligament. True False33. An important function of an articular disc is to limit the range of movement (rotation) at the joint. True False34. The surface of the synovial membrane is increased by small synovial villi and larger synovial folds. True False35. The synovial bursae contain fluid resembling blood and they serve to facilitate the play of one structure upon another. True False36. A subfacial bursa is placed between the skin and the underlying deep fascia of the body. True False37. Synovial sheets surround ligaments running in osteofacial tunnels. True False38. Among others, force of cohesion and atmospheric pressure are factors which keep the articular surfaces in contact with eachother. True False39. The prototype of an art. plana has only one axis around which the bones rotate. True False40. The prototype of an art. sellaris has two axes (at right angles) around which the bones rotate. True False41. The prototype of a ginglymus and the prototype of an art. trochoidea have both two axes (at right angles) around which the bones rotate. True False42. You need two perpendicular axes to describe all possible rotations of an art. spheroidea. True False43. The prototype of an art. ellipsoidea has three axes (at right angles) around which the bones rotate. True False44. At an art. ellipsoidea circumduction is allowed. True False45. Each fasciculus of a muscle is bound together by connective tissue called the perimysium. True False46. The assembly of fasciculi of a muscle is enclosed in a fibrous wrapping called the endomysium. True False47. Tendons as flat sheets of dense connective tissue are called fasciae. True False48. Flat sheets of dense connective tissue that penetrate muscles are called septa. True False49. During an isometric contraction, the length of the muscle does not change. True False50. During an eccentric contraction, the tension generated inside the muscle always increases. True False51. When the passive (not contracting) hamstrings prevent full flexion at the hip joint and simultaneously prevent full extension at the knee joint, the are called to be passive insufficient. True False52. When the concentrically contracting hamstrings are not able to maximally extend the hip joint and simultaneously maximally flex the knee joint, they are called to be active insufficient. True False53. The attachment of a muscle which lies more proximal towards the base of the limb (or on the trunk) is usually referred to as the origin of the muscle. True False54. The muscle is said to be a prime mover when it contracts for the primary purpose of producing the specified movement. True False55. A muscle which opposes a specified movement is called a synergist. True False56. Muscles which contract in order to provide a stable base for the action of the prime movers (= muscles that assist the action of the prime movers) are called antagonists. True False57. The origin of the m. iliacus is the fossa iliaca of the pelvis. True False58. The origin of the m. gluteus medius is amongst others the ala ossis ilii. True False59. The origin of the m. tensor fascia latae is the ventral part of the crista iliaca. True False60. The origin of the m. rectus femoris is amongst others the spina iliaca anterior superior. True False61. The origin of the m. gracilis is the os pubis. True False62. The insertion of the m. iliopsoas is the trochantor major. True False63. The function of the m. iliopsoas is amongst others flexion the the hip joint. True False64. The function of the m. gluteus medius is amongst others adduction at the hip joint. True False65. The function of the m. gluteus minimus is amongst others internal rotation at the hip joint. True False66. The function of the m. piriformis is amongst others abduction at the hip joint. True False67. The function of the m. obturatorius internus is amongst others internal rotation at the hip joint. True False68. The function of the m. quadratus femoris is amongst others extension at the knee joint. True False69. The function of the m. rectus femoris is amongst others extension at the knee joint. True False70. The function of the m. vastus medialis of the m. quadriceps is amongst others flexion at the hip joint. True False71. The function of the m. pectineus is amongst others adduction at the hip joint. True False72. The function of the m. gracilis is amongst others flexion at the knee joint. True False73. The function of the m. semimembranosus is amongst others extension at the knee joint. True False74. The function of the m. semitendinosus is amongst others extension at the hip joint. True False75. Amongst others flexion at the knee joint is probably limited by the posterior cruciate ligament. True False76. Amongst others, extension at the knee joint is probably limited by the anterior cruciate ligament. True False77. Amongst others, internal rotation (of the tibia) at the knee joint is limited by collateral ligaments. True False78. Amongst others, valgisation at the knee joint is limited by the lateral collateral ligament. True False79. Amongst others, abduction at the knee joint is limited by the medial collateral ligament True False80. The talus is subdivided into three parts: The corpus tali The collum tali The caput tali True False81. Amongst others dorsiflexion at the ankle joint (while the knee joint is flexed) is sometimes limited by passive insufficiency of the hamstrings. True False82. Amongst others, plantarflexion ath the ankle joint (while the knee joint is flexed) is possibly limited by bone-to-bone approximation. True False83. Amongst others, plantarflexion at the ankle joint (while the knee joint is extended) is possibly limited by tension in the ventral capsule of this joint. True False84. Amongst others, inversion at the ankle is limited by the ligamentum talofibularis anterior. True False85. Amongst others, the origin of the m. tibialis anterior is the dorsal side of the medial condyle of the tibia. True False86. Amongst others, the origin of the m. tibialis posterior is the dorsal side of the fibula. True False87. Amongst others, the insertion of the m. extensor hallucis longus is the distal phalanx of the hallux (big toe). True False88. Amongst others, the insertion of the m. flexor hallucis longus is the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux (big toe). True False89. Amongst others, the function of the m. soleus is plantar flexion at the ankle joint. True False90. Amongst others, the insertion of the m. peroneus brevis is the os cuneiforme laterale. True FalseTime is Up!