Anatomy 1 Welcome to your Anatomy 1: Fundamentals, Myology & Osteology Lower Extremity Quiz. This quiz has 90 multiple choice questions. Make sure to mark an answer for every question! You will get the results mailed to the email address indicated below! Good luck! EMAIL NAME 1. Frontal planes nearer to the front of th ebody are posterior or dorsal, while those nearer to the back are anterior or ventral.TrueFalse2. Transversal planes nearer to the head are cranial, while those nearer to the sacrum are caudal.TrueFalse3. Movements of the trunk in the transverse plane are known as lateral flexion (to the left or right) and in the frontal plane as rotation (to the left and right)TrueFalse4. When rotation of a limb brings the lateral side anteriorly, it is termed lateral rotation (or external rotation)TrueFalse5. Plantar Flexion is a movement of the foot at the ankle joint towards the sole.TrueFalse6. An aponeurosis is a membrane of fibrous tissue which sheathes orther tissues.TrueFalse7. A ligament is mostly a fibrous band joining two bones.TrueFalse8. Foramen means "hole", condyle means "knuckle", crus means "arm" and brachium means "leg".TrueFalse9. Except for the articular part, a bone is enclosed in a dense layer of fibrous connective tissue: perichondriumTrueFalse10. Among others the femur consists of compact bone, cancellous (spongy) bone and a marrow cavity.TrueFalse11. The periosteum consists of a superficial layer containing osteoblasts and a second deeper layer of fibrous tissue, containing connective tissue cells.TrueFalse12. The medullary cavity is filled with yellow marrow and the spaces in the cancellous bone with red marrow.TrueFalse13. Cartilage consists of osteocytes, contained in lacunae and surrounded by intercellular substance containing collagen.TrueFalse14. Cartilage is relatively non-vascular and is commonly nourished by tissue fluids.TrueFalse15. The following anatomical structures consist of hyaline cartilage: Articular cartilage of synovial joints The labrum enlarging the sockets of the shoulder and hip joint Intervertebral discs joining the vertebral bodies TrueFalse16. Among others white fibrocartilage is found at the xiphoid process of the sternum and in the costal cartilage.TrueFalse17. The Haversian system (=osteone) has a central canal which is surrounded by up to ten, or more, concentric lamellae of bone tissue.TrueFalse18. Bone has two principal components: an organic matrix (water, mucopolysacharides and collagen) and a mineral matrix (calcium, phosphate, etc.)TrueFalse19. The three distinct classes of joints are: Fibrous joints Cartilaginous joints Syndesmosis TrueFalse20. Fibrous joints exist in three types: Sutures Gomphoses Synchondroses TrueFalse21. Sutures are only found in the skull; at sutures, no movement occurs.TrueFalse22. Synostosis means "obliteration" of a joint.TrueFalse23. A syndesmosis is a fibrous joint in which the uniting fibrous tissue forms an interosseus membrane or ligament.TrueFalse24. One of the two synchondroses that persists throughout life is the first sternocostal joint.TrueFalse25. The symphysis (secondary cartilaginous) is a more specialized joint than the synchondrosis; the symphysis occurs only in the median plane and persists throughout life.TrueFalse26. Typical examples of a symphysis are the joints between the bodies of the vertebrae.TrueFalse27. The inner layer of the articular capsule is formed by the fibrous membrane, the outter layer by the synovial membrane.TrueFalse28. Articular cartilage is very well innervated and therefore is very sensitive.TrueFalse29. At each end, the synovial membrane is firmly attached to the periosteum of the articulating bones, at a variable distance from the edge of the articular cartilage.TrueFalse30. The synovial membrane may be strengthened by adjacent muscle tendons of by ligaments.TrueFalse31. When the amount of fibres in the fibrous capsule is increased, and when these fibres are arranged in parallel bundles, this part of the capsule is often called a ligament.TrueFalse32. An important function of an articular disc is to limit the range of movement (rotation) at the joint.TrueFalse33. The surface of the synovial membrane is increased by small synovial villi and larger synovial folds.TrueFalse34. The synovial bursae contain fluid resembling blood and they serve to facilitate the play of one structure upon another.TrueFalse35. A subfacial bursa is placed between the skin and the underlying deep fascia of the body.TrueFalse36. Synovial sheets surround ligaments running in osteofacial tunnels.TrueFalse37. Among others, force of cohesion and atmospheric pressure are factors which keep the articular surfaces in contact with eachother.TrueFalse38. The prototype of an art. plana has only one axis around which the bones rotate.TrueFalse39. The prototype of an art. sellaris has two axes (at right angles) around which the bones rotate.TrueFalse40. The prototype of a ginglymus and the prototype of an art. trochoidea have both two axes (at right angles) around which the bones rotate.TrueFalse41. You need two perpendicular axes to describe all possible rotations of an art. spheroidea.TrueFalse42. The prototype of an art. ellipsoidea has three axes (at right angles) around which the bones rotate.TrueFalse43. At an art. ellipsoidea circumduction is allowed.TrueFalse44. Each fasciculus of a muscle is bound together by connective tissue called the perimysium.TrueFalse45. The assembly of fasciculi of a muscle is enclosed in a fibrous wrapping called the endomysium.TrueFalse46. Tendons as flat sheets of dense connective tissue are called fasciae.TrueFalse47. Flat sheets of dense connective tissue that penetrate muscles are called septa.TrueFalse48. During an isometric contraction, the length of the muscle does not change.TrueFalse49. During an eccentric contraction, the tension generated inside the muscle always increases.TrueFalse50. When the passive (not contracting) hamstrings prevent full flexion at the hip joint and simultaneously prevent full extension at the knee joint, the are called to be passive insufficient.TrueFalse51. When the concentrically contracting hamstrings are not able to maximally extend the hip joint and simultaneously maximally flex the knee joint, they are called to be active insufficient.TrueFalse52. The attachment of a muscle which lies more proximal towards the base of the limb (or on the trunk) is usually referred to as the origin of the muscle.TrueFalse53. The muscle is said to be a prime mover when it contracts for the primary purpose of producing the specified movement.TrueFalse54. A muscle which opposes a specified movement is called a synergist.TrueFalse55. Muscles which contract in order to provide a stable base for the action of the prime movers (= muscles that assist the action of the prime movers) are called antagonists.TrueFalse56. The hip bone consists of the os ilii, os pubis, and os femoris.TrueFalse57. The origin of the m. iliacus is the fossa iliaca of the pelvis.TrueFalse58. The origin of the m. gluteus medius is amongst others the ala ossis ilii.TrueFalse59. The origin of the m. tensor fascia latae is the ventral part of the crista iliaca.TrueFalse60. The origin of the m. rectus femoris is amongst others the spina iliaca anterior superior.TrueFalse61. The origin of the m. gracilis is the os pubis.TrueFalse62. The insertion of the m. iliopsoas is the trochantor major.TrueFalse63. The function of the m. iliopsoas is amongst others flexion the the hip joint.TrueFalse64. The function of the m. gluteus medius is amongst others adduction at the hip joint.TrueFalse65. The function of the m. gluteus minimus is amongst others internal rotation at the hip joint.TrueFalse66. The function of the m. piriformis is amongst others abduction at the hip joint.TrueFalse67. The function of the m. obturatorius internus is amongst others internal rotation at the hip joint.TrueFalse68. The function of the m. quadratus femoris is amongst others extension at the knee joint.TrueFalse69. The function of the m. rectus femoris is amongst others extension at the knee joint.TrueFalse70. The function of the m. vastus medialis of the m. quadriceps is amongst others flexion at the hip joint.TrueFalse71. The function of the m. pectineus is amongst others adduction at the hip joint.TrueFalse72. The function of the m. gracilis is amongst others flexion at the knee joint.TrueFalse73. The function of the m. semimembranosus is amongst others extension at the knee joint.TrueFalse74. The function of the m. semitendinosus is amongst others extension at the hip joint.TrueFalse75. Amongst others flexion at the knee joint is probably limited by the posterior cruciate ligament.TrueFalse76. Amongst others, extension at the knee joint is probably limited by the anterior cruciate ligament.TrueFalse77. Amongst others, internal rotation (of the tibia) at the knee joint is limited by collateral ligaments.TrueFalse78. Amongst others, valgisation at the knee joint is limited by the lateral collateral ligament.TrueFalse79. Amongst others, abduction at the knee joint is limited by the medial collateral ligamentTrueFalse80. The talus is subdivided into three parts: The corpus tali The collum tali The caput tali TrueFalse81. Amongst others dorsiflexion at the ankle joint (while the knee joint is flexed) is sometimes limited by passive insufficiency of the hamstrings.TrueFalse82. Amongst others, plantarflexion ath the ankle joint (while the knee joint is flexed) is possibly limited by bone-to-bone approximation.TrueFalse83. Amongst others, plantarflexion at the ankle joint (while the knee joint is extended) is possibly limited by tension in the ventral capsule of this joint.TrueFalse84. Amongst others, inversion at the ankle is limited by the ligamentum talofibularis anterior.TrueFalse85. Amongst others, the origin of the m. tibialis anterior is the dorsal side of the medial condyle of the tibia.TrueFalse86. Amongst others, the origin of the m. tibialis posterior is the dorsal side of the fibula.TrueFalse87. Amongst others, the insertion of the m. extensor hallucis longus is the distal phalanx of the hallux (big toe).TrueFalse88. Amongst others, the insertion of the m. flexor hallucis longus is the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux (big toe).TrueFalse89. Amongst others, the function of the m. soleus is plantar flexion at the ankle joint.TrueFalse90. Amongst others, the insertion of the m. peroneus brevis is the os cuneiforme laterale.TrueFalseTime is Up!