Shoulder Assessment

4-Type Classification by Kibler | Scapular Dyskinesis Assessment

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4 type classification

4-Type Classification by Kibler | Scapular Dyskinesis Assessment

Kibler et al. (2002) were pioneers in the classification of scapular dyskinesis. Up to today, the 4-type classification is the most commonly used method in scientific studies to determine if participants display scapular dyskinesis or not. The 4-type classification has been evaluated regarding its reliability by the author himself. They found an intra-rater reliability of k = 0.5 and an inter-rater reliability of k = 0.4. This means that this method is moderately reliable.

Watch the video if you want to learn more about the classification in detail:

Execution:

1. The patient performs 3 repetitions of bilateral shoulder elevations in the scapular plane at a speed of 45°/s

2. Afterwards, the patient performs 3 repetitions of bilateral shoulder abduction at a speed of 45°/s

3. The examiner observes for winging and/or dysrhythmia

Based on the findings, Kibler divides the scapular dyskinesis into the following 4 types:

Kibler 4 types

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There are two alternatives for the Scapular Dyskinesis Test. Feel free to check out the two other methods below:

References

Kibler WB, Uhl TL, Maddux JW, Brooks PV, Zeller B, McMullen J. Qualitative clinical evaluation of scapular dysfunction: a reliability study. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2002 Nov 1;11(6):550-6.

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