Tampa Scale 11

International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC)

Tampa Scale 11 (TSK-11)

The Tampa Scale 11 (TSK-11) of Kinesiophobia is a shortened version of the original 17-item questionnaire. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is a widely used questionnaire designed to assess kinesiophobia, which is the fear of movement or re-injury (Hapidou et al., 2012). The TSK-11 is a shortened version of the original TSK that consists of 11 items (Hapidou et al., 2012). It was developed by eliminating psychometrically poor items from the original 17-item version, creating a shorter questionnaire that is comparable to the original version (Hapidou et al., 2012).


Validity and Reliability

The TSK-11 has been used in various clinical contexts. For example, it has been used to assess fear of movement in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (Shastri et al., 2022). Another study investigated the association between kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis (Hidaka et al., 2022). The study found that high kinesiophobia was independently associated with lower general quality of life in preoperative patients with severe hip osteoarthritis (Hidaka et al., 2022).

In terms of reliability, the TSK-11 has shown good test-retest reliability in patients with high-impact chronic pain (Eiger et al., 2022). The study found high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the TSK-11, indicating good to excellent test-retest reliability (Eiger et al., 2022). The standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC) values were also calculated, providing information about the measurement error and the smallest change that can be considered real (Eiger et al., 2022).


Scoring and Interpretation

The TSK-11 is scored on a 4-point Likert scale, with responses ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree) (George et al., 2012). The lowest possible score, 11, denotes negligible or nonexistent kinesiophobia. The highest possible score, 44, denotes a severe fear of experiencing pain while moving. (George et al., 2012).

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Eiger, B., Errebo, M., Straszek, C., Vaegter, H. (2022). Less Is More: Reliability and Measurement Error For Three Versions Of The Tampa Scale Of Kinesiophobia (Tsk-11, Tsk-13, And Tsk-17) In Patients With High-impact Chronic Pain. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 1(23), 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1515/sjpain-2021-0200

George, S., Lentz, T., Zeppieri, G., Lee, D., Chmielewski, T. (2012). Analysis Of Shortened Versions Of the Tampa Scale For Kinesiophobia And Pain Catastrophizing Scale For Patients After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Clinical Journal of Pain, 1(28), 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1097/ajp.0b013e31822363f4

Hapidou, E. G., O’Brien, M. A., Pierrynowski, M. R., de Las Heras, E., Patel, M., & Patla, T. (2012). Fear and Avoidance of Movement in People with Chronic Pain: Psychometric Properties of the 11-Item Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-11). Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada64(3), 235–241. https://doi.org/10.3138/ptc.2011-10

Hidaka, R., Tanaka, T., Hashikura, K., Oka, H., Matsudaira, K., Moro, T., Matsuda, K., Kawano, H., & Tanaka, S. (2023). Association of high kinesiophobia and pain catastrophizing with quality of life in severe hip osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study. BMC musculoskeletal disorders24(1), 388. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-023-06496-6

Shastri, M., Nagarajan, M., & Maheshwari, S. (2022). Reliability and Validity of Kannada Version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-KA-11)-A Validation Study. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy Print-(ISSN 0973-5666) and Electronic–(ISSN 0973-5674)16(3), 15-19.

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