Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)
Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) / Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (OLBPDQ)
The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) / Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire is used to measure the extent of functional restrictions brought on by pain in low back pain sufferers. The questionnaire gives the user details on a low back pain patient’s overall everyday functioning. Six response alternatives are available for the following items: pain intensity, self-care (washing, dressing), lifting, moving around, sitting or standing, sleeping, sex life, social life, and travel/transportation. The first response option (score 0) denotes the absence of pain-related restrictions, whereas the sixth response option (score 5) denotes the highest perceived restriction of an activity caused by pain. In the literature, the OLBPDQ is also frequently referred to as the ODI.
Validity and Reliability
According to Sheahan et al. (2015), group mean construct validity was 0.734±0.094 (as measured by a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937±0.032 (as measured by an intraclass correlation coefficient), and internal consistency was 0.876±0.047 (as measured by Cronbach’s alpha).
Scoring and Interpretation
Each component is assigned a value between 0 and 5, with 5 indicating the most disability. The index is calculated by dividing the total score by the range of scores and multiplying the result by 100 to get the index’s percentage value. As a result, for each unanswered question, the denominator is reduced by 5. If a patient marks more than one statement in a question, the statement with the highest score is recorded as true evidence of disability.
- No disability (0-4 points)
Most daily activities are manageable for the patient. Aside from guidance on lifting, sitting, and exercising, no therapy is usually necessary.
- Mild disability (5-14 points)
Sitting, lifting, and standing cause the patient extra discomfort and trouble. Travel and social activities are more difficult for them, and they may be unable to work. Personal hygiene, sexual activity, and sleeping are unaffected, and the patient can usually be handled conservatively.
- Moderate disability (15-24 points)
The primary issue in this group is pain, although daily activities are also impacted. These patients necessitate a thorough examination.
- Severe disability (25-34 points)
Back pain affects every part of the patient’s life. Positive action is essential.
- Complete disability (35-50 points)
These patients are either confined to their beds or exaggerating their symptoms.
Oswestry Disability Index Online Calculator
Fairbank, J. C., & Pynsent, P. B. (2000). The Oswestry Disability Index. Spine, 25(22), 2940–2952.
Mehra, A., Baker, D., Disney, S., & Pynsent, P. B. (2008). Oswestry Disability Index scoring made easy. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 90(6), 497–499.
Sheahan, P. J., Nelson-Wong, E. J., & Fischer, S. L. (2015). A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Disability and rehabilitation, 37(25), 2367–2374.
When available, sources are cited, and the tool’s developer retains ownership of the intellectual property. We consider that the modification and creation of these tools into dynamic, interactive, online scoring calculators is fair usage. Please email us if you believe we have violated your copyright so we can take down the offending material.