Knee-Self Efficacy Scale

K-SES Questionnaire

 

 

International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC)

K-SES

The Knee-Self Efficacy Scale (K-SES) is a self-report questionnaire that measures patients’ perceived self-efficacy of knee function after ACL injury (Thom√©e et al. 2006).

 

Validity and Reliability

The K-SES has been shown to have good reliability, validity, and responsiveness during rehabilitation for patients’ perceived self-efficacy of knee function. The K-SES has been found to have good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84. The K-SES has also been positively correlated with measures of optimism and life satisfaction, indicating good construct validity (Thom√©e et al. 2008).

Since it has been devised in Swedish, English and Dutch translations of the questionnaire have been found to be valid and reliable to determine knee self-efficacy in patients with sports-related knee injury (Ezzat et al. 2021, van Lankveld et al. 2019).

Beischer et al. (2021) validated an 18-item version of the K-SES based on feedback from patients who completed the original 22-item version and found acceptable reliability and validity to assess knee self-efficacy in patients up to 18‚ÄČmonths after ACL injury and reconstruction.

 

Scoring and Interpretation

The K-SES questionnaire consists of 22 items subdivided into 4 categories: daily activities (A), sports and leisure activities (B), physical activities (C), and future knee function (D).  Each item is rated on a 11-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 (not at all certain) to 10 (very certain).  To score the K-SES questionnaire, the scores for each item are summed, with higher scores indicating higher levels of hope. For injured patients, who have not undergone an ACL-reconstruction, item 22 is excluded.

The authors of the questionnaire recommend to calculate and interpret two scores:

  • 1. K-SESpresent¬†to evaluate the self-efficacy at present (item categories A, B, C)
  • 2. K-SESfuture to evaluate the self-efficacy in the future (item category D)

 

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References

Thomeé P, Währborg P, Börjesson M, Thomeé R, Eriksson BI, Karlsson J. A new instrument for measuring self-efficacy in patients with an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006;16(3):181-187. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2005.00472.x

Thomeé P, Währborg P, Börjesson M, Thomeé R, Eriksson BI, Karlsson J. Self-efficacy of knee function as a pre-operative predictor of outcome 1 year after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(2):118-127. doi:10.1007/s00167-007-0433-6

van Lankveld W, van Melick N, Habets B, Pronk Y, Staal JB, van Cingel R. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the Dutch knee self efficacy scale (K-SES). BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2019;11:3. Published 2019 Mar 7. doi:10.1186/s13102-019-0115-y

Beischer S, Hamrin Senorski E, Thomeé P, Thomeé R. Validation of an 18-item version of the Swedish Knee Self-Efficacy Scale for patients after ACL injury and ACL reconstruction. J Exp Orthop. 2021;8(1):96. Published 2021 Oct 25. doi:10.1186/s40634-021-00414-2

Ezzat AM, Whittaker JL, Brussoni M, M√Ęsse LC, Emery CA. The English Knee Self-Efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable measure for knee-specific self-efficacy in individuals with a sport-related knee injury in the past 5 years. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2021;29(2):616-626. doi:10.1007/s00167-020-05974-x


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