Hip and Groin

Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS)



International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC)

Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS)

The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome score is a 37-item questionnaire to assess pain, symptoms, physical function in daily living, physical function in sport and recreation, participation in physical activities and quality of life in patients with hip and groin problems (Thorborg et al. 2011).


Validity and Reliability

The HAGOS has been validated in athletes, including football players, with and without hip and/or groin pain, and is therefore a relevant tool to include in the investigation of severity of hip and groin pain and injury (Carolan et al. 2022). The HAGOS has been shown to discriminate between football players with and without groin pain (Schoffl et al. 2021). The HAGOS questionnaire is capable of measuring the severity of hip and groin pain and function specifically related to sports like football (Carolan et al. 2022, Dowson et al. 2015). The HAGOS is a valid, reliable, and responsive tool for assessing hip and groin disability in athletes with hip and/or groin pain (O’Brien et al. 2019). The HAGOS questionnaire has been cross-culturally adapted and validated in different languages and cultures (Christensen et al. 2022, Cao et al. 2018, Tak et al. 2018).


Scoring and Interpretation

The HAGOS questionnaire consists of 6 subscales: Symptoms, Pain, ADL, Sport/Rec, PA, and QOL. Each subscale is scored separately based on the standardized answer options provided, with each question receiving a score from 0 to 4. The scores are then summed up to calculate the subscale scores, which are transformed to a 0-100 scale. A score of 0 represents severe hip and/or groin problems, while a score of 100 represents no hip and/or groin problems. The scores between 0 and 100 represent the percentage of total possible score achieved. The subscales are analyzed and interpreted separately, and an aggregate score is not calculated .


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Thorborg, K., Hölmich, P., Christensen, R., Petersen, J., & Roos, E. M. (2011). The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS): development and validation according to the COSMIN checklist. British journal of sports medicine, 45(6), 478–491. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.080937

Carolan, D., Richter, C., Thorborg, K., Franklyn-Miller, A., O’ Donovan, J., McDonald, C., & King, E. (2022). Hip and groin pain prevalence and prediction in Elite Gaelic Games: 2703 male athletes across two seasons. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 32(5), 924–932. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14136

Dowson, D & Bayne, Helen & Grant, Catharina. (2015). Hip and groin pain in sub-elite South African footballers:. South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 27. 114-117. 10.17159/2078-516x/2015/v27i4a425.

Schoffl, J., Dooley, K., Miller, P., Miller, J., & Snodgrass, S. J. (2021). Factors Associated with Hip and Groin Pain in Elite Youth Football Players: A Cohort Study. Sports medicine – open, 7(1), 97. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-021-00392-w

O’Brien, M., Bourne, M., Heerey, J., Timmins, R. G., & Pizzari, T. (2019). A novel device to assess hip strength: Concurrent validity and normative values in male athletes. Physical therapy in sport : official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine, 35, 63–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.11.006

Tak, I., Tijssen, M., Schamp, T., Sierevelt, I., Thorborg, K., Kerkhoffs, G., Stubbe, J., van Beijsterveldt, A. M., & Haverkamp, D. (2018). The Dutch Hip and Groin Outcome Score: Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation According to the COSMIN Checklist. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy, 48(4), 299–306. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2018.7883

Cao, S., Cao, J., Li, S., Wang, W., Qian, Q., & Ding, Y. (2018). Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Simplified Chinese version of Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) for total hip arthroplasty. Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research, 13(1), 278. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-018-0971-2

Christensen, K. B., Clausen, M. B., King, E., Franklyn-Miller, A., Harøy, J., Andersen, T. E., Hölmich, P., & Thorborg, K. (2022). Validation of the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) using modern test theory across different cultures and languages: a cross-sectional study of 452 male athletes with groin pain. British journal of sports medicine, 56(6), 333–339. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104412

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